Things to know about Chinese dwarf hamsters
Chinese dwarf hamsters are one of the smallest pet hamster breeds, measuring approximately 2 inches at full maturity. These tiny creatures are characterized by a white underbelly, grey-brown top coat and a dark stripe along the back. A generally docile pet, Chinese dwarf hamsters typically do well when housed in same-sex pairs, preferably littermates.
Breeding and lifespan
The gestation period for a Chinese dwarf hamster is 18 to 25 days, with an average litter containing four to six pups. Young hamsters reach breeding maturity by 8 weeks of age, and if housed with siblings, should be separated into gender-specific housing units at this time to avoid unintentional breeding. Dwarf hamsters typically live 1 to 2 1/2 years.
While these hamsters are tiny, they still need as large of an enclosure as you can fit and afford. This is typically their primary space for play and exercise, so having enough space is crucial for their health. At minimum, the cage should be 2 feet long, 1 foot wide, and 1 foot high.
Cage options are generally either one with a plastic base and wire top or a glass or plastic aquarium. The wire cage will allow for better airflow, but you have to make sure the bar spacing is narrow enough that your hamster can’t squeeze through them.
Include a nest or small animal hideout in the enclosure, which can be found at most pet stores. And add a hamster wheel with a solid surface for exercise. There also are all sorts of tubes, burrowing tunnels, and bridges that you can add to your hamster’s habitat for enrichment. Moreover, make sure to include some wooden chew sticks or other chew toys made for hamsters, as this will help to wear down their continuously growing teeth.
Clean the enclosure at least once a week, replacing all the bedding and washing the surfaces with mild soap and water. Hamsters tend to pick a corner of their enclosure as their bathroom. So it’s a good idea to scoop out and change the bedding in that corner every day to keep it sanitary.
Specific Substrate Needs
Place 1 to 2 inches of bedding, such as aspen shavings or paper-based products, in the bottom of the enclosure. Hamsters may be hypersensitive to certain bedding materials such as cedar chips. It is important to steer clear of this substrate as it can cause dry skin, alopecia and secondary bacterial infections in affected animals.
Food and water
In the wild, hamsters eat a varied diet of seeds, grains, nuts, vegetation, and insects. In captivity, you can feed your animal a commercial hamster food that’s supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Follow the package instructions for how much to feed each day. Most owners put a day’s worth of food in a small ceramic bowl in the enclosure. You can do this at any point during the day, as hamsters like to graze throughout the day and night rather than eat designated meals.
Supplement the commercial hamster food with grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, and timothy hay. Put these foods in a separate dish from your hamster’s main diet. Supplemental foods should make up no more than 10% of the hamster’s overall diet. Some options include pieces of apple, carrot, and oats. It’s best to feed fresh foods only when your hamster is awake (often in the evening), so it can eat them before they start to spoil. Remove any fresh food from the enclosure within 24 hours, making sure to look for pieces of food that your hamster might have stashed in the bedding.
Finally, hamsters always need access to clean water. It’s best to use a small animal water bottle attached to the side of the enclosure, which stays more sanitary than a water dish. But make sure your hamster is consistently drinking from the bottle before removing its water dish.
Behavior and temperament
Chinese hamsters are nocturnal, meaning they sleep by day and are awake at night. But they sometimes might wake up during the day to eat and move around for a short time. Still, it’s best not to wake a sleeping hamster to handle it. That likely will make it grouchy, and it might try to bite you.
As pets, these hamsters are generally good-natured and comfortable being held if you’ve consistently handled them from a young age. But if they’re not used to handling, some can be nervous and nippy. Moreover, because they are very small and quick, they can be difficult to handle. It’s best to sit on the floor when holding your hamster, as accidentally dropping it from even a few feet high can cause serious injury.
Chinese hamsters won’t bond with people like a dog or cat would. But once they’re comfortable around you, they might come to the side of their enclosure if you’re nearby. Chinese hamsters can either be kept alone or in same-sex pairs or small groups. However, hamsters kept together might display territorial aggression toward one another.1 Your best bet to avoid aggression is to acquire littermates that can grow up together and become accustomed to each other’s presence. Avoid contact between your hamster and any other pets in the house, as they might injure this small, fragile rodent.
They are generally low-maintenance, quiet pets, though they might keep you awake at night with their activity if you have their cage in your bedroom. Expect to spend a few hours each week on feedings and keeping the enclosure clean. Also, handle your pet and let it play in a small hamster exercise ball or other safe area outside of its enclosure for at least a few hours per day (likely in the evening once it’s awake).
Hand-taming is typically the extent of training with hamsters. Start gently handling your hamster from a young age, taking care never to squeeze it or jostle it. If it’s becoming stressed, put it down somewhere it’s secure and comfortable. Any time it spends in your hands should be a positive experience. You can even hand-feed it treats as you hold it to help with the taming process.
Providing an exercise wheel, along with a large enough enclosure, should be sufficient to keep your hamster physically fit and prevent obesity and other health issues. There are also exercise balls that you can put your hamster in to allow it to roam safely outside of its enclosure. Always monitor it when it’s outside the enclosure.
Hamsters are generally hardy animals, but they are prone to a few health problems.
Wet tail is a common illness in rodents, especially hamsters. Formally known as proliferative ileitis or regional enteritis, wet tail is diarrhea that typically arises from stress or unsanitary living conditions, which bring on a bacterial infection. Besides having diarrhea, your hamster might be lethargic and lose its appetite.3 Seek veterinary care immediately, as wet tail can be fatal if it’s not treated. Plus, it can be contagious to any other hamsters in the enclosure. So if you do have other hamsters, put them in a separate cage and monitor them for symptoms. Thoroughly clean the primary enclosure, and don’t reunite the hamsters until you’re sure they’re all symptom free.
Hamsters also are prone to lung and airway disorders that can quickly become serious. Symptoms include wheezing, nasal discharge, sneezing, and lethargy.4 This condition also requires prompt veterinary treatment.
Furthermore, when they don’t have adequate chew toys, some hamsters might experience overgrown teeth, which can interfere with their ability to eat.5 You might notice your hamster’s teeth look longer than normal, or you might just see it’s not eating and losing weight. A veterinarian can trim the teeth if necessary and then advise you on proper dental maintenance.
If you want more helpful advice on looking after your hamster, including tips on toys, accessories and accommodation, add a comment below to let us know!
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